Sapropels («sapros»- rotten, and «pelos» - mud, silt) are centuries-old benthic sediments of freshwater pools which were formed from the defunct water flora, living beings remnants, plankton and the soil detritus particles containing lots of organic substances and humus. In other words, sapropel is organic and mineral natural matter composed of organic and mineral raw components of vegetal and animal origin.
Sapropel pertains to the class of fossil coals known under an umbrella term "Sapropelites". Sapropel sediments are characteristic only for freshwater pools. Thus, there are three main components in sapropels: water (60 to 97%), cindery part (sand, clay, carbonites, phosphates, silica, iron compounds etc.) and organic matter of a very complex and varied composition.
Sapropel is a unique gift of nature, as there is no other substance having these properties!
The most valuable components of sapropel are the biologically active substances and a whole set of microelements and aminoacids, which are beneficial for the health of people, animals and plants. It contains proteins, fats, vitamins, hormones, antioxidants, growth stimulants and many other substances.
The set of these substances and their concentration are largely determined by the sapropel bedding conditions, lakes flora and fauna composition, specific features of biochemical zone and bedding depth. Lack of oxygen, minor temperature fluctuations provide special conditions for benthic sediments where all living and dead cells of animals, microscopic algae, soil humus, fungi etc., are reduced to principal components: aminoacids and low molecular weight peptides, nucleotides, nucleosides with the production of “semi-living” cells and tissues, highly active biological substances.